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Evolution History and Development Trend of Industrialized Live Pig Breeding Model in China

Issuing time:2020-02-21 00:00

Live pig industry is a pillar industry of Chinese animal husbandry.
Pork output of China in 2009 was 48. 91 million tons
for 63. 9% of total meat products
; 50. 70 million tons in 2010
69. 5% of the total1; topped the world in 2011accounting for
48. 9% of the global total
2. The statistics show that Chinese animal husbandry dominated by live pig industry has made considerable fruitsits total output value increased from 139. 7 billion yuan
in 1978 to 2 087 billion yuan in 2010
and the ratio to the total
output value of agriculture increased from 15% in 1978 to 33% in
3. The remarkable results are closely related to the industrialization model of Chinese live pig industry since 1978and the
development trend of the latter is essential for maintaining sustained and stable development of animal husbandry.

1 Evolution of industrialized live pig breeding model
1. 1 Definition Industrialized live pig breeding model refers to
the optimized model of combining production factors related to live
pig breeding such as land
capitallabor and entrepreneurs' capability and the industrialized operation modelaccording to the development needs of industrialized live pig breeding. It is mainly
demonstrated as " enterprise + household" and its derived forms

as a major trend of live pig industry in Chinait is the inevitable
result of industrialized live pig breeding
4. Industrialized operation model of live pig breeding will be influenced by external environment and internal conditions of farm households and enterprises. Evolution of industrialized live pig breeding model indicates
the stable live pig breeding model in different stages against the
background of the changing social and economic conditions.

1. 2Review of the evolution of industrialized live pig breeding model Through decades of reform and developmentoperation model of live pig industry in China has witnessed tremendous
changes. The original public-owned live pig industry has been
transferred to family operation through contract transfer or cash
and the original household live pig industry has witnessed
rapid development
and has been gradually transferred to rural
large-scale live pig breeding or modern industrialized live pig
breeding. From scattered operation to large-scale operation

standardized and industrialized operationthe modernization of
live pig industry in China has been achieved.

1. 2. 1 Household operation model. Household operation model
of live pig industry was the dominated live pig breeding model of
China from 1978 to 1990
and was called " backyard live pig industry" because most of live pigs were bred in peasants' backyards. During this periodpork production grew slowly. It should
be realized that household operation of live pig breeding exists and
will exist for a certain period of time because of its adaptability in
various aspects. Household operation model is fit for the live pig
breeding technology. Individual household operation was available
for making various products in the ancient times
but in other industrieshousehold operation has become unsuitable because of
the developed technologies. However
technological development
of live pig industry has not influenced the household operation

which owes to not only the coexistence of ancient and modern live
pig breeding technology
but also the capacity of household live
pig breeding accepting modern live pig breeding technology. For
many modern live pig breeding technologies can be used
in individual households
such as quality live pig breedscompound feedsartificial fecundationand highly effective vaccine.
Some production technologies
such as large-scale toolscan be
used by many households together. So household live pig breeding
is still fit for modern rural households
and the adaptability will be enhanced with the development of social services.
There are many operation models for household live pig
for exampleas part-time businessor specialized business. The business scale varies greatlyspecialized live pig breeding has always large scaleand there is also cooperative operation
of various forms. Household live pig breeding has become a unit of
industrialized live pig breeding
but generally speakingmost
households give up live pig breeding
especially in developed regionsand the rich is not willing to raise live pigswhile the poor
cannot afford raising live pigs. Live pig industry in China has been
transferred from the household-dominated model to the government-driven model supported by specialized households and enterprises.

1. 2. 2 Large-scale operation model. Household operation model
in spite of the technological adaptabilityis limited in scaleso is
less effective in making profits than large-scale production. From
1990 to 2000
China witnessed rapid economic development
large-scale live pig breeding started and became a major approach
of increasing peasants' income
more middle-scale live piggeries
were constructed
and live pig industry accounted for a large ratio
in rural areas. In 1998
live pig slaughter from household breeding
and large-scale breeding accounted for 76. 8% and 23. 2%
Joint live pig breeding also emerged in this period
production of live pig industry included producing
supplying and
under the condition of market economyall sections
are connected via exchange. Lateral economic tie was established
to eliminate the obstacles among different sections
improve efficiency of connectionand ensure smooth reproduction of live pig.
Household live pig breeding was disadvantaged by limited scale

thus lateral tie should be enhanced to consolidate its role as a market entity. Joint operation of household live pig breeding includes
the following forms
i. e. joining the integrated organization of animal husbandryindustry and businesslive pig industry group
enterprise plus livestock farmerslive pig industry producers' association. In additionthere are also various operation forms adaptive to modern economic conditionssuch as online sales of live

1. 2. 3 Industrialized live pig breeding. Since 2001large-scale
live pig farms have increased gradually
and more non-agricultural
enterprises have entered live pig industry
advantageous live pigproducing belts have been formed. For exampleRongchang
County of Chongqing Municipality was approved by the Ministry of
Agriculture as China Sci-tech Town of Animal Husbandry
Area of National Modern Animal Husbandry Demonstration Zone.
In 2008
live pig slaughter from household breeding and largescale breeding accounted for 44% and 56% ratio of large-scale
breeding exceeded 50% for the first time. In 2009
the ratio was
38. 7% and 61. 3%
respectively5. According to State Statistical
farms with 10 000 live pigs or above increased from 1 300 in
2006 to 1 800 in 2007
2 500 in 2008 and more than 3000 in
6. Based on large-scale live pig farmsmodern industrialized
live pig breeding has emerged and developed rapidly
and many famous live pig - producing brands have been builtsuch as ShinewayYurunJinluo & Wensand Dongjin Agriculture.

2 External environment for the industrialized live pig
breeding model
According to the evolution history of live pig industry in China
large-scale live pig breeding emerged in the middle and late
and those engaged in live pig breeding were called specialized live pig - breeding householdswhich remarked the first significant change of live pig producing model in China. Based on the
increasing live pig production scale and improvement of production
techniques such as hothouse live pig breeding
application of compound feedsconstruction of standard live piggeryas well as the
integration of breeding
processing and marketingindustrialized
live pig breeding concepts and operation model were formed preliminarily in 1993
and have achieved tremendous fruits in the
past decades
but have been influenced by domestic and international environment. During the past 20 yearsthe global economy
has witnessed drastic changes
and the changes will seriously influence industrialized live pig breeding model in China.

2. 1 Global economic competition Economic globalization is
a dynamic process and result of resource distribution worldwide.
Production factors concerning industrialized live pig breeding

such as landcapitallabor and entrepreneurs' capabilitiescontribute to facilitating worldwide distribution of resourceswhich is
demonstrated as globalization of investment
productiontrade and
finance in industrialized live pig production. For example
transnational corporations that can evaluate investment environment and make decisions from the global scope such as Chia Tai
Group have devoted more in live pig producing and relevant industries. Against the background of economic globalization
economic integration has been promoted
for exampleEU
ASEAN and APEC have contributed greatly to globalization.
industrialized live pig breeding in China has encountered both opportunities and challengeslive pig breeding enterprisesespecially medium-sized and small enterprises have had to
face competition with transnational enterprises
famous live pig
brands and relevant products.

2. 2 Experience economy Economic form has witnessed the
evolution from agricultural economy
to industrial economyservice economy and current experience economy. Experience economy refers to the economic form that enterprises center on services
and take commodities as the media to leave good impression on
build consumers' long-term loyalties to the brandand
organize production of enterprises.
it is a kind of consumer-centered economy
emerged in the 21st century. " Experience" is made into marketable commodities
experience consumption or symbolic consumption has become more popularand experience economy has gradually occupied an important status after the service economy. In
the age of experience economy
there are new trends of consuming
live pigs and live pig products. From the perspective of content of
consumptionthe popular standard live pig products declineand
demands on individualized live pig products and famous pork processing brands increase. From the perspective of the way of receiving products
consumers participate activelybut not passivelyfor
consumers can order live pig products online. From the
perspective of consumption consciousness
consumers have stronger
public awareness
and want to become "green" consumers.

2. 3 Stronger green consciousness of consumers Due to the
natural environmental problems such as global warming
of water resources
environmental pollutionland degradationexhaustion of forest and mineral resourcesand waste processing
and social environmental problems such as consumerpopulation
city and workers' rightsgreen consciousness of the public has
been awakened
green has become a barrierconsumption patterns
become more diverse. The changes have great impact on market
demand on live pigs and live pig products
and then the industrialized operation model of live pig industry.

3 Development trend of live pig breeding industry
3. 1 Expanding international marketconsolidating domestic
market and market development
The inevitable trend of industrialized live pig breeding and internationalization is expanding
international market and consolidating domestic market. Market
demand on live pig and live pig products is the initial factor determining the development of industrialized live pig breeding. If live
pigs and live pig products are not marketable
live pig industry
will not able to develop stably. Industrialization is the foundation

but internationalization is the key for the development of live pig
breeding industry
so it is necessary to change and improve the organization degree of live pig production. Furthermoreinternational communication should be enhanced to introduce foreign funds
technologiesequipment and management experienceand also
export our own technologies
capitalstalents and labor forcesso
as to improve foreign trade environment of live pig industry
gradually expand the international market. Every effort must be made
to consolidate domestic market
for exampleuse culture to guide
and influence the public so that they will protect the live pig industry spontaneously. In South Korea
it would be a shame for not
eating Korean Beef
such a concept can be borrowedand live pig
industry culture further promoted to guide Chinese consumers
expand domestic market need on live pigs and live pig products.

3. 2 Integrating productive elements of live pig industry In
view of the requirements on the development of live pig industry
and adaptation to market environment
productive elements of live
pig industry must be integrated
traditional industrialized live pig
breeding model reformed
then the integrated operation model of
live pig industry will be formed. First
part-time live pig breeding
is transferred to specialized and large-scale breeding
which is a
major demonstration of microstructure innovation of live pig industry
and an inevitable trend of transferring from highly scattered to
relatively concentrated
and an objective requirement of changing
traditional production and operation model. Many countries with
developed live pig industry put their focus on specialized breeding
and take them as the production foundation and support object. Secondconstruction of live pig breeding communities
is a necessary trend and prerequisite of standardized and specialized live pig breeding
and also an effective approach of changing
traditional production model. In recent years
live pig breeding
communities have been widely constructed in China
which greatly
improves the production level of live pig industry
and promotes
the transferring from scattered to concentrated development.
intermediary organization of live pig industry should be promotedbecause market economy requires the organization capable
of linking live pig breeding households and market. In countries
with developed live pig industry
such intermediary organizations
as industrial association or peasants' cooperative is the major channel of linking scattered households and the market. Intermediary
organization standardizes production activities of its members
joins the market competition as a whole
and settles the problems
that scattered live pig breeding households meet in the development. Intermediary organization for live pig industry of China has
just been launched
more support should be given to guide its development and fully play its role. Through developing specialized
live pig breeding households
breeding communities and intermediary organizationsthe industrialized operation of live pig industry
will be constantly improved
traditional operation model reformed
and the integrated operation model of live pig industry formed.

3. 3 Industrialized operation model driven by live pig processing industry It is the requirement of market economy to improve competitive power and economic benefits of animal by-products. Food processing industry with animal by-products as raw materials such as pork will witness great developmentand it is an
inevitable trend to increase the proportion of live pig product processing. In China
especially in region with fast-growing and larger proportion of live pig industryit is imperative to extend industry chain of live pig productionand devote more in food processing industry based on animal by-products.
It is important to vigorously develop animal by-products processing enterprises
improve capacity and level of processingfully
play the role of leading enterprises
and push them to an important
position in modern live pig industry and become an important section for improving status of live pig breeding and economic benefits
and providing quality products; to promote the large-scale
industrialized operationand integrated development;
to develop the industrialized operation models such as " enterprise
+ household" and " enterprise + live piggery"
and control the
production sections
and adapt to the increasingly strict requirements on food security and hygienic quality; to develop quality
live pig industry
build famous brandsand produce pollutionfreegreen and organic live pig productsconstantly improve economic benefits of producing and processingas well as popularity
and reputation of live pig products nationwide and worldwide
; to
fully play the role of large-size export - oriented processing enterprises
expand domestic and international marketimprove the proportion of exported live pig products.

3. 4 Farming technologies and concepts In the future live pig
industry chain
" intellectualized live pig breeding" will be promotedi. e. internet of things will be widely applied in live pig
for exampleintelli-senseauto-controlmonitoring and
early warning can be applied to improve live pig production level
and efficiency
reduce consumption of energy and inputs. Specificallyrealize the whole-chain traceability of live pig products
ensure quality of live pig products; realize fine productionand
individualized breeding according to the growth stage or growth
conditions of each live pig
improve the production efficiency to
the most
; apply intelligent equipmentsuch as intelligent live piggeryfeeding stationmanure processingauto-monitoring and
In terms of breeding concept
" animal welfare" should be
9. Animal welfare has been well known in developed
countries and many developing countries
but not introduced to
China in recent years. Application of animal welfare measures is
to improve security of animal-derived foods
and raising live pigs
in healthy and comfortable environment will bring more income to
peasants. In terms of environmental protection
ecological breeding will be the major development trend to integrate agriculture
animal husbandry and low-carbon emission. According to the UNFAOanimal husbandry is one of the major industries producing
the most greenhouse gases
its ammonia emission accounts for 2 /3
of the global total ammonia emission
and its methane emission accounts for 1 /3 of the global total methane emission. Among the
cattle is responsible for the most greenhouse gas emissionbut live pig quantity in China is much larger than that of cattleso live pig industry produces tremendous greenhouse gases.
Without low-carbon animal husbandry
there will be no low-carbon
so it is the key task for the future live pig industry to settle
carbon emission problems.

4 Conclusions
Great achievements of live pig industry in China are closely related
to the evolution of industrialized live pig breeding model
and to
ensure the sustained and stable development of animal husbandry
it is important to grasp the development trend of industrialized live
pig breeding. Evolution of industrialized live pig breeding model
refers to the relatively stable live pig breeding model in different
periods centering on production elements of live pig industry
the basis of socioeconomic development. Since 1978
live pig industry has witnessed the household operation modellarge-scale
operation model and industrialized operation model
and the industrialized live pig breeding model has been seriously
impacted by global economic competition
development of experience economyand consumers' green consciousness. Furthermore
industrialized live pig breeding of China shows the development
trend of " expanding international market
consolidating domestic
integrating resources of live pig industry for the integrated
promoting the industrialization model and breeding
technology driven by live pig processing
applying animal welfare
and the internet of things in live pig breeding industry" .

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